This test provides a way to evaluate the concentration, structure and motility of spermatozoa. The semen analysis may result in one of the following diagnoses: astenozoospermy (significant decrease of spermatozoon motility), teratozoospermy (more than half of the spermatozoa have structure abnormalities) and oligozoospermy (very low concentration of spermatozoa). The reproduction specialist will counsel you regarding possible treatment methods. The most common infertility treatment in the cases mentioned above is an artificial insemination procedure using ICSI (injecting spermatozoa into the egg cell). In the laboratory under the microscope the most motile and morphologically appropriate spermatozoa are selected; then those spermatozoa are injected into the egg cell using a thin needle. In rare cases involving very low production of spermatozoa, a testicular biopsy may be performed. Spermatozoa obtained during this biopsy may be used for the ICSI procedure.
Age :- Most sperm banks require donors to be between the ages of 18 and 39. Some sperm banks set an upper age limit of 34.
Physical exam :- The exam will include taking samples of your blood and urine to test for infectious diseases, such as HIV. If you become a regular sperm donor, you'll need to have physical exams every six months while you provide sperm donations. You'll be asked to report any changes in your health.
Semen testing :- You'll need to provide several samples of your semen. Before providing each sample, you'll likely be asked to abstain from ejaculation — either through sex or masturbation — for at least 48-72 hours. The samples will be analyzed for sperm quantity, quality and movement.
Genetic testing :- A blood sample will be analyzed to see if you're a carrier of any genetic conditions. Ask individual sperm banks which tests they perform, as some banks conduct more-extensive testing than others.
Family medical history :- You'll need to provide details about the medical history of at least two previous generations of your family. A history that suggests the presence of a hereditary disease might disqualify you from donating sperm.
Psychological evaluation :- You'll likely be asked if you're concerned about your personal information being shared with your biological children or about future contact with them. If you're donating your sperm to someone you know, you'll likely be asked to talk about your relationship with the recipient. If you have a partner, counseling might be helpful for him or her, too.
Personal and sexual history :- You'll need to provide a detailed history of your sexual activities, drug use and other personal information to show whether you have risk factors for developing an infectious disease, such as HIV. You'll be asked to share detailed information about your personal habits, education, hobbies and interests. You might also be asked to provide pictures or videos of yourself or audio recordings of your voice.